The foot consists of 26 bones and 32 joint surfaces. The foot is made of large number of muscles, tendons, neurovascular elements and ligaments. The foot function, in addition to walking, is also the ability to perform two basic functions:
Function of passive-static load while standing, carrying body load,
Active-elastic-dynamic function when moving, moving the body in space.
These two apparently opposite functions (stability and elasticity) have been achieved thanks to the vaults that are determined by the points most exposed to pressure. Those are:
In back: tuber calcaneus (heel bone),
Anteromedial: the head of the first,
Anterolateral: the head of the fifth metatarsal bone.
When connected, there are three arches:
Medial longitudinal arch,
Lateral longitudinal arch,
The height of the longitudinal arches is determined first by the bone shape, muscle strength and ligaments resistance. Every person is born with flat feet. The arches of feet begin to form when the baby begins to walk, which is usually 12 months of age. By the third year of life, foot arches are completely and definitely formed.
Well and properly developed footprint is characterized by:
The pear shaped heel,
The front part of the foot is connected to a heel with narrow coupling,
Noticeable angle at the transition from the coupling to the front part of the foot,
Clear fingerprints of all five fingers.
A disorder in the structure or the shape of one bone of the foot causes a disorder in the function of the foot. These malformations are progressively increased during growth and cause secondary changes in adjacent and distant segments (elbows, hips, spine).
The enchanted circle of the formation of the foot deformity begins with the change in the shape and position of the foot, influenced by the biomechanical forces, which, during load, most often by walking, temporarily change the shape of the feet functionally, aesthetically and structurally.