Deformities of the feet of children and adults

The foot consists of 26 bones and 32 joint surfaces. The foot is made of large number of muscles, tendons, neurovascular elements and ligaments. The foot function, in addition to walking, is also the ability to perform two basic functions:
Function of passive-static load while standing, carrying body load,
Active-elastic-dynamic function when moving, moving the body in space.

These two apparently opposite functions (stability and elasticity) have been achieved thanks to the vaults that are determined by the points most exposed to pressure. Those are:
In back: tuber calcaneus (heel bone),
Anteromedial: the head of the first,
Anterolateral: the head of the fifth metatarsal bone.

When connected, there are three arches:
Medial longitudinal arch,
Lateral longitudinal arch,
Transverse arch.

The height of the longitudinal arches is determined first by the bone shape, muscle strength and ligaments resistance. Every person is born with flat feet. The arches of feet begin to form when the baby begins to walk, which is usually 12 months of age. By the third year of life, foot arches are completely and definitely formed.

Well and properly developed footprint is characterized by:
The pear shaped heel,
The front part of the foot is connected to a heel with narrow coupling,
Noticeable angle at the transition from the coupling to the front part of the foot,
Clear fingerprints of all five fingers.

A disorder in the structure or the shape of one bone of the foot causes a disorder in the function of the foot. These malformations are progressively increased during growth and cause secondary changes in adjacent and distant segments (elbows, hips, spine).
The enchanted circle of the formation of the foot deformity begins with the change in the shape and position of the foot, influenced by the biomechanical forces, which, during load, most often by walking, temporarily change the shape of the feet functionally, aesthetically and structurally.

All deformities of the feet can be:
Inborn – congenital, present at birth
Acquired deformities – formed during life

Congenital feet deformities represent the structural anomalies of the resulting intrauterine, during the process of organogenesis (process of organ formation). The exact cause is not known, and numerous theories attempt to explain their origin. Embryological theory (developmental delay), mechanical (pressure theory), neuromuscular, vascular and theory of bone, muscle and ligament anomalies are known.

The inadequate position of the fetus in the uterus (uterus) is the most often mentioned cause of congenital deformity of the feet.
A high level of representation in the whole family has been established, but the exact way of inheritance is unknown.
Early diagnosis of congenital foot deformities is very important in order to correct the deformity as soon as possible. Diagnosis can be done immediately after birth, based on the appearance of the foot.

The brain receives information on the position of the foot, and therefore the body in the space, based on sensory knowledge, but also on the basis of the information obtained from the receptors contained in the components of the foot. A foot with expressed deformity sends to brain incomplete and inadequate information. Most of the injuries of the feet and the hocks occur thanks to this fact.

A large number of children who do sports also have flat feet. Is this a sufficient risk of getting the injuries of the lower limbs?
To make the treatment of deformity successful, first of all is needed early diagnosis and early beginning of therapy, in order to cut the flow of spontaneous evolution of deformity and to bring the feet into their normal shape and position, and in that way prevent secondary changes in adjacent and remote segments.

With persistent work and good exercise program, in cooperation with parents, the results will not be missed.


Word of doctor

PhD Aleksandar Jakovljević

Orthopedics includes the treatment of a wide range of orthopedic disorders and sports injuries. The S.TETIK Clinic is one of the first in the region where you can undergo the most modern methods and techniques.

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