Prevention and treatment of sports injuries

Sports, except for a healthy life, carries also the other side, and this is unwanted injuries to a professional or recreational athlete, which results in temporary or permanent removal from the sports fields.

Injuries to the ligaments, knee joints and hocks occur in sports with rapid changes in the direction of movement and jumping. Sports such as tennis, gymnastics or swimming tend to prevent injuries to the shoulder, elbow and wrist. In order to reduce injuries, constant education about the mechanisms of injuries and proper exercise is needed.

The most common injuries are the ones of the knee and hock, especially the injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. They occur because of the poor muscle structure and lack of coordination. As injuries to the lower extremities are more frequent, attention should be paid to the prevention of injury (injuries to the front cruciate ligament are 4-6 times more common in women than in men).
In order to make a quality prevention of injuries, quality exercises should be carried out on a daily basis, at least 3 times per week.

The prevention of injuries basically ranges from quality warming and stretching (elasticity of soft structures is achieved), measured strength exercises, balance exercises, agility exercises (movement-change of movement direction), stretching exercises and fatigue control.

The preventive training process is done according to the needs of athletes, age and type of sport. Precise exercise is required, especially during the adoption phase. Information on improper exercises or body positions should be corrected.

It is important to adopt the correct exercise of changing direction (the distance of the feet, the shoulders, the focus on the feet). In case of fatigue, exercise should be interrupted (rest, relaxation).

Preventive training should ensure continuous load progression:
With strength exercises should be ensured progressive load increase,
With load exercises, it should be aimed to strengthen all the major muscle groups in the full range of movement,
With agility exercises should be done continuous progression from movement in one level to several levels (forward, back, right, left) and combination with jumps and sudden changes in the direction of movement,
Balance exercises: greater intensity of changing hands position, closing eyes, distorting balance (throwing a ball),
Speed training: running on treadmill, load with elastic tapes.

Strengthening exercises affect a good balance of the strength of all muscles, so that the load on certain parts of the body would not cause injury or damage. With aerobic exercises (running, bicycle) is achieved better endurance. Proper sports shoes play a major role in reducing injuries.

In any sport, incompatibility of training, improper warming and stretching, lack of strength, durability and agility lead to minor or major injuries, so the preventive training process is necessary.

Taking care of sports injuries
Timely and adequate treatment of all forms of injuries is extremely important. Often it happens that minor injuries are ignored, and lack of treatment of such ones causes other, greater injuries or damage.
In most cases with sports injuries, in the center of the injury occur bleeding and hematoma (swelling).

Basic care is taken immediately after the injury and is applied in the first 48 hours according to the RICE principle.
RICE in the first 48 hours:
R (rest),
I (ice),
C (compression),
E (elevation).

Proper application of the basic principle of care – RICE, will reduce the swelling and pain of the injured area, contribute to a faster and better functional result of rehabilitation. Severe third-stage injuries require surgical treatment and rehabilitation according to the type and severity of the surgery in association with the doctor.

Basic approach to rehabilitation of sports injuries
Rehabilitation of first and second degree sports injuries is carried out on the principle of individual approach of the physiotherapist to the patient according to status (professional athlete, recreational player), using consultations of medical documentation.

Rehabilitation is carried out in stages:
Active exercises and stretching exercises,
Gradual introduction of an increase in the intensity and duration of the exercise,
Gradual increase in load,
Gradual introduction of agility exercises (change of direction of movement),
Return to training at a lower level.

Rehabilitation after an injury
Rehabilitation after an injury of a particular segment due to compensation (sparing this segment) leads to incorrect asymmetric movements and the possibility of problems in some other area (for example spinal muscle), so that the attention should be also directed to the functionality of the whole body.

An inevitable part of every program is the daily track of the rehabilitation process through physiotherapeutic documentation, good education of patient for conducting home exercises as a supplement to the training program, in order to achieve desired results. Education about the use of bandage in preparing athletes for training is important because they stabilize the joint in case the joint is unstable.

Premature return to the maximum load leads to a repeated injury of the same or another segment, and it is important that after the rehabilitation, the athlete enters the gradually load adjusted to the previous injury. The goal is to cure the injury correctly and to enable completely the return to sporting activities.

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Word of doctor

PhD Aleksandar Jakovljević

Orthopedics includes the treatment of a wide range of orthopedic disorders and sports injuries. The S.TETIK Clinic is one of the first in the region where you can undergo the most modern methods and techniques.

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