Sports, except for a healthy life, carries also the other side, and this is unwanted injuries to a professional or recreational athlete, which results in temporary or permanent removal from the sports fields.
Injuries to the ligaments, knee joints and hocks occur in sports with rapid changes in the direction of movement and jumping. Sports such as tennis, gymnastics or swimming tend to prevent injuries to the shoulder, elbow and wrist. In order to reduce injuries, constant education about the mechanisms of injuries and proper exercise is needed.
The most common injuries are the ones of the knee and hock, especially the injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. They occur because of the poor muscle structure and lack of coordination. As injuries to the lower extremities are more frequent, attention should be paid to the prevention of injury (injuries to the front cruciate ligament are 4-6 times more common in women than in men).
In order to make a quality prevention of injuries, quality exercises should be carried out on a daily basis, at least 3 times per week.
The prevention of injuries basically ranges from quality warming and stretching (elasticity of soft structures is achieved), measured strength exercises, balance exercises, agility exercises (movement-change of movement direction), stretching exercises and fatigue control.
The preventive training process is done according to the needs of athletes, age and type of sport. Precise exercise is required, especially during the adoption phase. Information on improper exercises or body positions should be corrected.
It is important to adopt the correct exercise of changing direction (the distance of the feet, the shoulders, the focus on the feet). In case of fatigue, exercise should be interrupted (rest, relaxation).
Preventive training should ensure continuous load progression:
With strength exercises should be ensured progressive load increase,
With load exercises, it should be aimed to strengthen all the major muscle groups in the full range of movement,
With agility exercises should be done continuous progression from movement in one level to several levels (forward, back, right, left) and combination with jumps and sudden changes in the direction of movement,
Balance exercises: greater intensity of changing hands position, closing eyes, distorting balance (throwing a ball),
Speed training: running on treadmill, load with elastic tapes.
Strengthening exercises affect a good balance of the strength of all muscles, so that the load on certain parts of the body would not cause injury or damage. With aerobic exercises (running, bicycle) is achieved better endurance. Proper sports shoes play a major role in reducing injuries.
In any sport, incompatibility of training, improper warming and stretching, lack of strength, durability and agility lead to minor or major injuries, so the preventive training process is necessary.